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Hemochromatosis References

Hemochromatosis References

The following is a list of references to textbooks, medical research, and articles compiled by our doctors in their study of hereditary hemochromatosis.

An effort was taken to group topics together, although many books and articles cover the entire subject matter of iron overload, or too much iron.

We hope this helps further your education about hemochromatosis!

Textbooks on Hemochromatosis

Hemochromatosis & Iron Overload Textbooks:

  • Barton, James C., and Corwin Q. Edwards. Hemochromatosis: Genetics, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. Print.
  • Anderson, Gregory J.. Iron physiology and pathophysiology in humans. New York, Humana Press, 2012. Print.
  • Symons, M.C.R., and J.M.C. Gutteridge. Free radicals and iron: Chemistry, biology, and medicine. Oxford University Press, 1998. Print.

General Medical Physiology Textbooks:

  • Boron, Walter F., and Emile L. Boulpaep. Medical physiology: A cellular and molecular approach. Philadelphia, Saunders, 2003. Print.
  • Cotran, Ramzi S., and Vinay Kumar, and Tucker Collins. Pathologic basis of disease. Philadelphia, Saunders, 1999. Print.

PubMed Research Studies on Hemochromatosis


  • Srichairatanakool, S., Thephinlap, C., Phisalaphong, C., Porter, J. B., and Fucharoen, S. Curcumin contributes to in vitro removal of non-transferrin bound iron by deferiprone and desferrioxamine in thalassemic plasma. Med.Chem. 2007;3(5):469-474.
  • Jiao, Y., Wilkinson, J., Christine, Pietsch E., Buss, J. L., Wang, W., Planalp, R., Torti, F. M., and Torti, S. V. Iron chelation in the biological activity of curcumin. Free Radic.Biol.Med. 4-1-2006;40(7):1152-1160.
  • Jiao, Y., Wilkinson, J., Di, X., Wang, W., Hatcher, H., Kock, N. D., D’Agostino, R., Jr., Knovich, M. A., Torti, F. M., and Torti, S. V. Curcumin, a cancer chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent, is a biologically active iron chelator. Blood 1-8-2009;113(2):462-469.
  • Tuntipopipat, S., Zeder, C., Siriprapa, P., and Charoenkiatkul, S. Inhibitory effects of spices and herbs on iron availability. Int.J Food Sci.Nutr. 2009;60 Suppl 1:43-55.
  • Tuntipopipat, S., Judprasong, K., Zeder, C., Wasantwisut, E., Winichagoon, P., Charoenkiatkul, S., Hurrell, R., and Walczyk, T. Chili, but not turmeric, inhibits iron absorption in young women from an iron-fortified composite meal. J Nutr. 2006;136(12):2970-2974.
  • Baum, L. and Ng, A. Curcumin interaction with copper and iron suggests one possible mechanism of action in Alzheimer’s disease animal models. J Alzheimers.Dis. 2004;6(4):367-377.
  • Ishihara, M. and Sakagami, H. Re-evaluation of cytotoxicity and iron chelation activity of three beta-diketones by semiempirical molecular orbital method. In Vivo 2005;19(1):119-123.
  • Bernabe-Pineda, M., Ramirez-Silva, M. T., Romero-Romo, M. A., Gonzalez-Vergara, E., and Rojas-Hernandez, A. Spectrophotometric and electrochemical determination of the formation constants of the complexes Curcumin-Fe(III)-water and Curcumin-Fe(II)-water. Spectrochim.Acta A Mol.Biomol.Spectrosc. 2004;60(5):1105-1113.
  • Reddy, A. C. and Lokesh, B. R. Effect of dietary turmeric (Curcuma longa) on iron-induced lipid peroxidation in the rat liver. Food Chem.Toxicol 1994;32(3):279-283.
  • Reddy, A. C. and Lokesh, B. R. Studies on the inhibitory effects of curcumin and eugenol on the formation of reactive oxygen species and the oxidation of ferrous iron. Mol.Cell Biochem. 8-17-1994;137(1):1-8.
  • Reddy, A. C. and Lokesh, B. R. Effect of curcumin and eugenol on iron-induced hepatic toxicity in rats. Toxicology 1-22-1996;107(1):39-45.
  • Mandel, S., Amit, T., Bar-Am, O., and Youdim, M. B. Iron dysregulation in Alzheimer’s disease: multimodal brain permeable iron chelating drugs, possessing neuroprotective-neurorescue and amyloid precursor protein-processing regulatory activities as therapeutic agents. Prog.Neurobiol. 2007;82(6):348-360.
  • Jyoti, A., Sethi, P., and Sharma, D. Curcumin protects against electrobehavioral progression of seizures in the iron-induced experimental model of epileptogenesis. Epilepsy Behav. 2009;14(2):300-308.
  • Thephinlap, C., Phisalaphong, C., Lailerd, N., Chattipakorn, N., Winichagoon, P., Vadolus, J., Fucharoen, S., Porter, J. B., and Srichairatanakool, S. Reversal of cardiac iron loading and dysfunction in thalassemic mice by curcuminoids. Med Chem 2011;7(1):62-69.
  • Thephinlap C, Phisalaphong C, Fucharoen S, Porter JB, Srichairatanakool S.Efficacy of curcuminoids in alleviation of iron overload and lipid peroxidation in thalassemic mice. Med Chem. 2009 Sep;5(5):474-82.


  • Hegge AB1, Schüller RB, Kristensen S, Tønnesen HH. In vitro release of curcumin from vehicles containing alginate and cyclodextrin. Studies of curcumin and curcuminoides. XXXIII. Pharmazie. 2008 Aug;63(8):585-92.
  • Teichmann A1, Heuschkel S, Jacobi U, Presse G, Neubert RH, Sterry W, Lademann J. Comparison of stratum corneum penetration and localization of a lipophilic model drug applied in an o/w microemulsion and an amphiphilic cream. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2007 Nov;67(3):699-706.
    • (**Note: In respect to the above study, our Turmeric Cream is a “microemulsion” preparation and not a “amphiphillic” preparation)
  • Fang JY1, Hung CF, Chiu HC, Wang JJ, Chan TF. Efficacy and irritancy of enhancers on the in-vitro and in-vivo percutaneous absorption of curcumin. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2003 May;55(5):593-601.
  • Fang JY1, Hung CF, Chiu HC, Wang JJ, Chan TF. Efficacy and irritancy of enhancers on the in-vitro and in-vivo percutaneous absorption of curcumin. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2003 Aug;55(8):1175.
  • Patel NA1, Patel NJ, Patel RP. Design and evaluation of transdermal drug delivery system for curcumin as an anti-inflammatory drug. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2009 Feb;35(2):234-42.
  • H Moghimi, B Shahmir, A Zarghi. Enhancement of percutaneous absorption of curcumin (turmeric pigment) by ethanol. IJPR. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. Article 21, Volume 3, Supplement 2, Autumn 2004, Pages 8-9.
    • (**Note: In respect to the above study, our Turmeric Cream contains alcohol as an ingredient to enhance absorption)


  • Srichairatanakool S, Ounjaijean S, Thephinlap C, Khansuwan U, Phisalpong C, Fucharoen S. Iron-chelating and free-radical scavenging activities of microwave-processed green tea in iron overload. Hemoglobin. 2006;30(2):311-327.
  • Mandel S, Amit T, Reznichenko L, Weinreb O, Youdim MBH. Green tea catechins as brain-permeable, natural iron chelators-antioxidants for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2006;50(2):229-234.
  • Imai K and Nakachi K. Cross sectional study of effects of drinking green tea on cardiovascular and liver diseases.BMJ. 1995;310(6981):693-696.
  • Samman S, Sandström B, Toft MB, et al. Green tea or rosemary extract added to foods reduces nonheme-iron absorption. Am J ClinNutr. 2001;73(3):607-612.
  • Ounjaijean S(1), Thephinlap C, Khansuwan U, Phisalapong C, Fucharoen S, Porter JB, Srichairatanakool S. Effect of Green Tea on Iron Status and Oxidative Stress in Iron-loaded Rats. Med Chem. 2008 Jul;4(4):365-70.
  • Thephinlap C, Ounjaijean S, Khansuwan U, Fucharoen S, Porter JB, Srichairatanakool S. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate and epicatechin-3-gallate from green tea decrease plasma non-transferrin bound iron and erythrocyte oxidative stress. Med Chem. 2007 May;3(3):289-96. PubMed PMID: 17504202.
  • Saewong T, Ounjaijean S, Mundee Y, Pattanapanyasat K, Fucharoen S, Porter JB, Srichairatanakool S. Effects of green tea on iron accumulation and oxidative stress in livers of iron-challenged thalassemic mice. Med Chem. 2010 Mar;6(2):57-64. PubMed PMID: 20218965.
  • Mandel SA, Avramovich-Tirosh Y, Reznichenko L, Zheng H, Weinreb O, Amit T, Youdim MB. Multifunctional activities of green tea catechins in neuroprotection.Modulation of cell survival genes, iron-dependent oxidative stress and PKC signaling pathway. Neurosignals. 2005;14(1-2):46-60. Review. PubMed PMID: 15956814.


  • Abenavoli L, Capasso R, Milic N, Capasso F. Milk Thistle in Liver Diseases: Past, Present, Future. Phytother Res. 2010 Oct;24(10):1423-32. doi: 10.1002/ptr.3207. PMID: 20564545
  • Bares JM, Berger J, Nelson JE, et al. Silybin treatment is associated with reduction in serum ferritin in patients with chronic hepatitis C. J. Clin. Gastroenterol. 2008;42(8):937-944.
  • Gharagozloo M, Moayedi B, Zakerinia M, et al. Combined therapy of silymarin and desferrioxamine in patients with beta-thalassemia major: a randomized double-blind clinical trial. FundamClinPharmacol. 2009;23(3):359-365.
  • Hutchinson C, Bomford A, Geissler CA. The Iron-Chelating Potential of Silybin in Patients with Hereditary Haemochromatosis. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 Oct;64(10):1239-41. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2010.136. Epub 2010 Jul 14. PMID: 20628405
  • Bell, Warren. What’s in a Name? Can Fam Physician. 2008 Feb; 54(2): 183–185. PMCID: PMC2278302
  • Kidd R. Exacerbation of Hemochromatosis by Ingestion of Milk Thistle. Can Fam Physician. 2008 Feb;54(2):182; author reply 182-3. PMID: 18272626
  • Whittington C. Exacerbation of hemochromatosis by ingestion of milk thistle. Can Fam Physician. 2007;53:1671–3. PMID: 17934030


  • Zhang Z, Liu D, Yi B, Liao Z, Tang L, Yin D, He M. Taurine supplementation reduces oxidative stress and protects the liver in an iron-overload murine model. Mol Med Rep. 2014 Nov;10(5):2255-62. doi: 10.3892/mmr.2014.2544. Epub 2014 Sep 5. PubMed PMID: 25201602; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4199407.
  • Lawless MW, Mankan AK, White M, O’Dwyer MJ, Norris S. Expression of hereditary hemochromatosis C282Y HFE protein in HEK293 cells activates specific endoplasmicreticulum stress responses. BMC Cell Biol. 2007 Jul 24;8:30. PubMed PMID: 17650303; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1947972.
  • Oudit GY, Trivieri MG, Khaper N, Husain T, Wilson GJ, Liu P, Sole MJ, Backx PH. Taurine supplementation reduces oxidative stress and improves cardiovascular function in an iron-overload murine model. Circulation. 2004 Apr 20;109(15):1877-85. Epub 2004 Mar 22. PubMed PMID: 15037530.
  • Dawson R Jr, Baker D, Eppler B, Tang E, Shih D, Hern H, Hu M. Taurine inhibition of metal-stimulated catecholamine oxidation. Neurotox Res. 2000;2(1):1-15. PubMed PMID: 15545001.
  • Messina SA, Dawson R Jr. Attenuation of oxidative damage to DNA by taurine and taurine analogs. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2000;483:355-67. PubMed PMID: 11787620.
  • Lawless MW, Mankan AK, Ryan AW, Norris S. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid: relieving the pathogenesis of HFE C282Y hereditary hemochromatosis. Hepatology. 2008Jul;48(1):344-5. doi: 10.1002/hep.22155. PubMed PMID: 18203149.
  • de Almeida SF, Picarote G, Fleming JV, Carmo-Fonseca M, Azevedo JE, de Sousa M. Chemical chaperones reduce endoplasmic reticulum stress and prevent mutant HFE aggregate formation. J Biol Chem. 2007 Sep 21;282(38):27905-12. Epub 2007 Jul 11. PubMed PMID: 17626021.
  • Devi SL, Viswanathan P, Anuradha CV. Regression of liver fibrosis by taurine in rats fed alcohol: effects on collagen accumulation, selected cytokines and stellate cell activation. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010 Nov 25;647(1-3):161-70. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.08.011. Epub 2010 Sep 4. PubMed PMID: 20813107.
  • Devi SL, Anuradha CV. Oxidative and nitrosative stress in experimental rat liver fibrosis: Protective effect of taurine. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2010 Mar;29(2):104-10. doi: 10.1016/j.etap.2009.11.005. Epub 2009 Nov 24. PubMed PMID: 21787590.
  • Manna P, Sinha M, Sil PC. Amelioration of cadmium-induced cardiac impairment by taurine. Chem Biol Interact. 2008 Jul 30;174(2):88-97. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2008.05.005. Epub 2008 May 15. PubMed PMID: 18561905.
  • Eppler B, Dawson R Jr. Cytoprotective role of taurine in a renal epithelial cell culture model. Biochem Pharmacol. 2002 Mar 15;63(6):1051-60. PubMed PMID: 11931837.
  • Dawson R Jr, Tang E, Shih D, Hern H, Hu M, Baker D, Eppler B. Taurine inhibition of iron-stimulated catecholamine oxidation. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1998;442:155-62. PubMed PMID: 9635027.
  • Hua HM, Ito T, Qiu ZG, Azuma J. [Progress in research on function and mechanism of cardiac vascular system of taurine]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2005May;30(9):653-8. Review. Chinese. PubMed PMID: 16075725.


  • Suh JH, Moreau R, Heath, SH, Hagen TM. Dietary supplementation with (R)-alpha-lipoic acid reverses the age-related accumulation of iron and depletion of antioxidants in the rat cerebral cortex. Redox Rep. 2005;10(1):52-60.
  • Lovell MA, Xie C, Xiong S, Markesbery WR. Protection against amyloid beta peptide and iron/hydrogen peroxide toxicity by alpha lipoic acid. J. Alzheimers Dis. 2003;5(3):229-239.


  • Disch G, Classen HG, Haubold W, Spätling L. Interactions between magnesium and iron. In vitro studies. Arzneimittelforschung. 1994 May;44(5):647-50. PubMed PMID: 8024640.
  • Snyder BK, Clark RF. Effect of magnesium hydroxide administration on iron absorption after a supratherapeutic dose of ferrous sulfate in human volunteers: a randomized controlled trial. Ann Emerg Med. 1999 Apr;33(4):400-5. PubMed PMID: 10092717.
  • Wallace KL, Curry SC, LoVecchio F, Raschke RA. Effect of magnesium hydroxide on iron absorption following simulated mild iron overdose in human subjects. Acad Emerg Med. 1998 Oct;5(10):961-5. PubMed PMID: 862585.


  • Wang DM, Wang C, Liu HY, Liu JX, Ferguson JD. Effects of rumen-protected γ-aminobutyric acid on feed intake, lactation performance, and antioxidative status in early lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2013 May;96(5):3222-7. PMID:23498023
  • Powers ME, Yarrow JF, McCoy SC, Borst SE. Growth hormone isoform responses to GABA ingestion at rest and after exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008 Jan;40(1):104-10. PMID:18091016
  • Xie WY, Hou XY, Yan FB, Sun GR, Han RL, Kang XT. Effect of γ-aminobutyric acid on growth performance and immune function in chicks under beak trimming stress. Anim Sci J. 2013 Feb;84(2):121-9. PMID: 23384353
  • Zhang M, Zou XT, Li H, Dong XY, Zhao W. Effect of dietary γ-aminobutyric acid on laying performance, egg quality, immune activity and endocrine hormone in heat-stressed Roman hens. Anim Sci J. 2012 Feb;83(2):141-7. PMID: 22339695
  • Shimada M, Hasegawa T, Nishimura C, Kan H, Kanno T, Nakamura T, Matsubayashi T. Anti-hypertensive effect of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-rich Chlorella on high-normal blood pressure and borderline hypertension in placebo-controlled double blind study. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2009 Jun;31(4):342-54. PMID: 19811362


  • Camfield DA, Stough C, Farrimond J, Scholey AB. Acute effects of tea constituents L-theanine, caffeine, and epigallocatechin gallate on cognitive function and mood: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutr Rev. 2014 Aug;72(8):507-22. PMID: 24946991
  • Lei M, Zuo J, Li M, Gu Q, Hu C Theanine improves the function of dendritic cells via the downregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression. Chin Med J (Engl). 2014;127(8):1545-9. PMID: 24762604
  • Ota M, Wakabayashi C, Matsuo J, Kinoshita Y, Hori H, Hattori K, Sasayama D, Teraishi T, Obu S, Ozawa H, Kunugi H. Effect of L-theanine on sensorimotor gating in healthy human subjects. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2014 May;68(5):337-43. PMID: 24372613
  • Thangarajan S, Deivasigamani A, Natarajan SS, Krishnan P, Mohanan SK. Neuroprotective activity of L-theanine on 3-nitropropionic acid-induced neurotoxicity in rat striatum. Int J Neurosci. 2014 Sep;124(9):673-84. PMID: 24325390
  • Barrett JR, Tracy DK, Giaroli G. To sleep or not to sleep: a systematic review of the literature of pharmacological treatments of insomnia in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2013 Dec;23(10):640-7. PMID: 24261659
  • Unno K, Tanida N, Ishii N, Yamamoto H, Iguchi K, Hoshino M, Takeda A, Ozawa H, Ohkubo T, Juneja LR, Yamada H. Anti-stress effect of theanine on students during pharmacy practice: positive correlation among salivary α-amylase activity, trait anxiety and subjective stress. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2013 Oct;111:128-35. PMID: 24051231
  • Lardner AL. Neurobiological effects of the green tea constituent theanine and its potential role in the treatment of psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders.
  • Nutr Neurosci. 2014 Jul;17(4):145-55. PMID: 23883567


  • Hurrell RF, Reddy M, Cook JD. Inhibition of non-haem iron absorption in man bypolyphenolic-containing beverages. Br J Nutr. 1999 Apr;81(4):289-95.
  • Kaltwasser, J P et al. Clinical trial on the effect of regular tea drinking on iron accumulation in genetic haemochromatosis. Gut 1998;43:699-704
  • De Alarcon PA, Donovan ME, Forbes GB, Landaw SA, Stockman JA 3rd. Iron absorption in the thalassemia syndromes and its inhibition by tea. N Engl J Med.  1979 Jan 4;300(1):5-8.
  • Brune M, Rossander L, Hallberg L. Iron absorption and phenolic compounds: Importance of different phenolic structures. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1989. Aug;43(8):547-57.
  • Ma Q, Kim EY, Lindsay EA, Han O. Bioactive dietary polyphenols inhibit heme iron absorption in a dose-dependent manner in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. J Food Sci. 2011 Jun-Jul;76(5):H143-50.

Articles on Hemochromatosis

Dr. Ray Peat, Ph.D.:

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition:

  • Polyphenols: Food Sources and Bioavailability
  • Claudine Manach, Augustin Scalbert, Christine Morand, Christian Rémésy, and Liliana Jiménez. Polyphenols: food sources and bioavailability. Am J Clin Nutr May 2004 vol. 79 no. 5 727-747.

Dr. Jacob Schor, ND:

  • GABA: Gamma-Amino Butyric Acid.

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